Gastrointestinal dysmotility frequently occurs during sepsis and multiple organ failure, remaining a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Previous studies have shown that hydrogen, a new therapeutic gas, can improve various organ damage associated with sepsis. In this study, the authors investigated the protective efficacies of inhaled hydrogen against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ileus. Sepsis was induced in rats and mice by a single i.p. injection of LPS at 15 mg/kg for mice and 5 mg/kg for rats. Four groups of rats and mice including sham/air, sham/hydrogen, LPS/air, and LPS/hydrogen were analyzed. Hydrogen (1.3%) was inhaled for 25 h beginning at 1 h prior to LPS treatment. Gastrointestinal transit was quantified and cytokine levels, as well as neutrophil extravasation, in the intestinal muscularis propria were determined. Lipopolysaccharide challenge remarkably delayed gastrointestinal transit of non-absorbable dextran, associated with increased leukocyte recruitment and upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expressions in the muscularis propria. Hydrogen significantly prevented LPS-induced bowel dysmotility and reduced leukocyte extravasation, as well as inhibition of inflammatory cytokine expression. In vitro analysis of cytokine levels after LPS treatment of cultured macrophages showed an increase of interleukin-10 by hydrogen regardless of the presence of nitric oxide. This study showed the protective effects of hydrogen inhalation on LPS-induced septic ileus through inhibition of inflammation in the muscularis propria. These inhibitory effects on the pro-inflammatory response may be partially derived from anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 induction.
Sakata H, Okamoto A, Aoyama-Ishikawa M, et al. Inhaled hydrogen ameliorates endotoxin-induced bowel dysfunction. Acute Med Surg. 2016 Jun 14;4(1):38-45. doi: 10.1002/ams2.218. eCollection 2017 Jan.