Despite the well-known toxicity and the efforts to control its exposure, lead still has a serious health concern, particularly in young ages. Chelation therapy cannot correct the neurocognitive effects of chronic exposure. So, there is a requirement to test different protective agents for lead intoxication. Hydrogen-rich water (HRW) has gained attraction recently as an antioxidant. Four groups of rats received sodium acetate, HRW, lead acetate (LA), or LA plus HRW for 8 weeks. Oxidative stress, histological and immunohistochemistry using p53 antibody were used to investigate the toxic effect of lead and the possible HRW protective effect in rat hippocampus. Results showed that HRW corrected the elevated malondialdehyde levels (MDA) and restore the lead-induced depletion of antioxidant enzymes; glutathione reductase (GR), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). HRW does not affect the diminished nitric oxide (NO) level in the LA-treated group. Moreover, HRW reversed the LA-induced histological and immunohistochemical changes. It significantly decreased the percentage of the apoptotic index. The authors concluded that HRW protects the neurons against lead-induced oxidative stress and has anti-apoptotic effects without a noticeable change in NO level which already was diminished by LA.
Paulis MG, Hassan OA, Abbass MF, et al. Structural and lipid peroxidation effects of lead on rat hippocampus and its attenuation by hydrogen rich water. J Chem Neuroanat. 2018 Sep;91:55-62.