Despite the significant interest in molecular hydrogen as an antioxidant in the last eight years, its quantitative metabolic parameters in vivo are still lacking, as is an appropriate method for determination of hydrogen effectivity in the mammalian organism under various conditions. Intraperitoneally-applied deuterium gas was used as a metabolic tracer and deuterium enrichment was determined in the body water pool. Also, in vitro experiments were performed using bovine heart submitochondrial particles to evaluate superoxide formation in Complex I of the respiratory chain. A significant oxidation of about 10% of the applied dose was found under physiological conditions in rats, proving its antioxidant properties. Hypoxia or endotoxin application did not exert any effect, whilst pure oxygen inhalation reduced deuterium oxidation. During in vitro experiments, a significant reduction of superoxide formation by Complex I of the respiratory chain was found under the influence of hydrogen. The possible molecular mechanisms of the beneficial effects of hydrogen are discussed, with an emphasis on the role of iron sulphur clusters in reactive oxygen species generation and on iron species-dihydrogen interaction. According to findings in this study, hydrogen may be an efficient, non-toxic, highly bioavailable and low-cost antioxidant supplement for patients with pathological conditions involving ROS-induced oxidative stress.
Hyspler R, Ticha A, Schierbeek H, Galkin A, Zadak Z. The evaluation and quantitation of dihydrogen metabolism using deuterium isotope in rats. PLoS One. 2015 Jun 23;10(6):e0130687.